The biology of a system responding to a well-characterized exposure can be studied by measuring specific endpoints.
The correct choice and measurement of sets of endpoints enable the understanding of biological pathways, defined as step-by-step explanations of causal processes linking specific exposures to phenomena of interest, such as inflammation or cardiovascular disease.
Beyond an analysis of different endpoints within a specific test system in a dedicated study, a transversal view of results obtained for one or similar test items for specific diseases and/or pathways across studies allows assessing the weight of evidence and the variability and heterogeneity of specific outcomes.
Direct quantitative comparisons may not be advisable across studies whose study design or power differ much, but effects relative to a similar control can be investigated.
Selected diseases relevant to smoke exposure, e.g., metabolic diseases (CVD, diabetes and liver diseases), respiratory diseases (COPD), periodontal diseases, and highlights biological pathways correlated with the development of these pathologies: inflammation, oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism, cellular and tissue damage can be browsed below.