AeroSolved is a Computational Fluid Dynamics code, based on the OpenFOAM software package, for simulation of the generation, transport, evolution and deposition of multispecies aerosol mixtures.
What is AeroSolved?
AeroSolved was developed to study aerosol dynamics starting from the aerosol generation through its evolution, transport, and deposition.
The implemented aerosol physics is applicable to a wide range of practical applications, including the development of aerosol generators, inhalation devices, validation of aerosol delivery systems for in vivo inhalation studies and in vitro sciences as well as for atmospheric sciences.
The aerosol is described within a Eulerian-Eulerian framework with the aerosol size distribution and aerosol dynamics represented by either a sectional or a two-moment method.
The code is implemented on the basis of the OpenFOAM open-source software. AeroSolved was developed jointly between Philip Morris International R&D (PMI R&D) and the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Twente (UT), The Netherlands.
AeroSolved includes the following key capabilities:
- Simulations of mass, momentum (Navier-Stokes equations), and energy conservation equations
- Multispecies formulation for gas (vapor), liquid (droplet) phases and solid particles
- Aerosol physics containing the following processes:
- Brownian coagulation
- Aerosol deposition:
- Inertial impaction
Software download and documentation
OpenFOAM® is open-source software licensed under the GNU General Public License. AeroSolved is not approved or endorsed by OpenCFD Limited or the OpenFOAM Foundation.
AeroSolved is available through the AeroSolved GitHub repository, which includes a few tutorials and validation cases.
AeroSolved has been updated!
Initially, AeroSolved 1.0 was developed within the OpenFOAM® 2.3.x framework, only taking into account the finite volume discretization, numerical computation, and parallelization libraries, but not relying on the OpenFOAM® (physics or chemistry) modeling libraries.
AeroSolved 2.0 is OpenFOAM v18.12/19.06-compatible and fully integrated with the OpenFOAM® modeling libraries. It follows the reactingFOAM solver approach for the treatment of the partial differential equations and source terms.
- Dr. Edo Frederix, ex - University of Twente, contributed to AeroSolved during his PhD project in collaboration with Philip Morris International R&D. He developed the main body of the code that is currently contained within AeroSolved and published in leading scientific journals such as the Journal of Computational Physics and the Journal of Aerosol Science.
- Dr. Arkadiusz Kuczaj, Philip Morris International R&D and University of Twente, developed and led the joint research collaboration program between Philip Morris International R&D and the University of Twente forming the foundation of the AeroSolved project. He contributed to the project with his knowledge in aerosol physics, computational fluid dynamics and high-performance computing.
- Prof. Bernard Geurts, University of Twente, PhD supervisor of Dr. Frederix, contributed to the AeroSolved project as an expert of computational modelling of multiphase flows in complex domains and to the scientific publications of the project results.
- Dr. Markus Nordlund, Philip Morris International R&D, actively contributed to the development of AeroSolved with his experience in the area of numerical modeling of flow, heat and mass transfer, and aerosol physics. He developed computational fluid dynamics algorithms and codes for simulating porous media transport and aerosol physics, which ultimately resulted in the initiation and development of AeroSolved.
- Dr. Francesco Lucci, Philip Morris International R&D, contributed to the AeroSolved project with his experience in the area of multiphase and reactive flows. Led the design and development of AeroSolved 2.0.
- Asgari, M., Lucci, F., & Kuczaj, A. K. (2019). Multispecies aerosol evolution and deposition in a bent pipe. Journal of Aerosol Science, 129, 53-70.
- Frederix, E. M. A., Stanic, M., Kuczaj, A. K., Nordlund, M., & Geurts, B. J. (2015). Extension of the compressible PISO algorithm to single-species aerosol formation and transport.International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 74, 184-194.
- Frederix, E. M., Stanic, M., Kuczaj, A. K., Nordlund, M., & Geurts, B. J. (2016). Characteristics-based sectional modeling of aerosol nucleation and condensation. Journal of Computational Physics, 326, 499-515.
- Frederix, E. M. A., Kuczaj, A. K., Nordlund, M., Veldman, A. E. P., & Geurts, B. J. (2017). Application of the characteristics-based sectional method to spatially varying aerosol formation and transport. Journal of Aerosol Science, 104, 123-140.
- Frederix, E. M. A., Kuczaj, A. K., Nordlund, M., Veldman, A. E. P., & Geurts, B. J. (2017). Eulerian modeling of inertial and diffusional aerosol deposition in bent pipes Computers & Fluids, 159, 217-231.
- Frederix, E. M. A. (2016). Eulerian modeling of aerosol dynamics. University of Twente.
- Frederix, E. M. A., Kuczaj, A. K., Nordlund, M., Bělka, M., Lizal, F., Jedelský, J., Elcner, J., Jícha, M., & Geurts, B. J. (2018). Simulation of size-dependent aerosol deposition in a realistic model of the upper human airways. Journal of Aerosol Science, 115, 29-45.
- Kuczaj, A. K., Nordlund, M., Jayaraju, S., Komen, E., Krebs, T., Peitsch, M. C., & Hoeng, J. (2016). Aerosol flow in the Vitrocell® 24/48 exposure system: flow mixing and aerosol coalescence. Applied In Vitro Toxicology, 2(3), 165-174.
- Lucci, F., Castro,N. D., Rostami,A. A., Oldham, M. J., Hoeng, J., Pithawalla, Y. B., & Kuczaj, A. K. (2018). Characterization and modeling of aerosol deposition in Vitrocell® exposure systems - exposure well chamber deposition efficiency. Journal of Aerosol Science, 123,141-160.
- Winkelmann, C., Kuczaj, A.K., Nordlund, M. & Geurts, B. J. (2018). Simulation of aerosol formation due to rapid cooling of multispecies vapors. Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 108, 171-196.
How to reference AeroSolved? At the moment please refer to www.aerosolved.com webpage.
This site is intended to provide a single point of reference for AeroSolved that summarizes all publications and documents the code.
We encourage users and potential developers interested in getting involved to contact us beforehand. We are keen to enhance the current AeroSolved code capabilities. We are also open for potential engagements concerning its functionality improvements and area of application extensions. We would appreciate your feedback about potential improvements, corrections and the usefulness of AeroSolved. You can contact us.